Blepharitis is characterised by a complex relation between ocularpalpebral flora and meibomian glands dysfunction (MGD), arising possible consequences such as eyelid swelling, cornea and conjunctiva alterations and eye discomfort symptoms.
Blepharitis is one of the most frequently traced ophthalmological conditions in clinical practice. It represents a significant challenge for doctors given to its chronic nature and the availability of different treatment options. Nevertheless, due to its prevalence, its association with dry eye syndrome (DES) and other sequels that might threat eyesight, it is therefore essential to diagnose and treat this condition individually, thus aiming to reduce symptoms and improve the life quality of every patient.
Typical blepharitis symptoms include redness, itching, burning, crusts along the eyelid’s edge, forming of chalazion and hordeolum (stye), eyelashes’ loss, discharge and lacrimation. Besides that, as MGD is the main DOS cause, symptoms like dryness, eye irritation and fluctuant eyesight are suggestive and always demand a careful observation of the eyelid’s edge. These are generally irregular chronic symptoms and may be exacerbated by some environment factors such as wind, smoke, dust, cosmetic products, etc. Symptoms are generally bilateral but may also be asymmetric.
Treatment strategies include a combination of eyelash hygiene, MGD control, reduction of eyelashes’ bacterial colonization, swelling suppression and restitution of lacrimation function. It is crucial to educate patients about chronic and recurrent nature of this illness and the need of long-term intervention.
It is fundamental to recall that, despite affecting all age groups, children present later diagnosis of this pathology due to their resilient and adaptive nature, sometimes with corneal achievement (blefarokeratoconjunctivitis) and secondary sequel. Thus we should be alert of small signs in our children and never wait for them to be the one’s raising the alarm bells… Despite having the same symptoms as adults, they do not express it in the same way!